Valorization of wine industry waste as a source of antioxidants for an enriched animal diet
This National Research Project PN-II-RU-TE-2012-3-0048 is granted by the UEFISCDI of Romanian Ministry of Education having the financing contract No.31 from 29/04/2013.
Project code: PN-II-RU-TE-2012-3-0086
In recent years, a strong request to the agro-food industries for cleaner production processes has been noticed, and so the efficient and profitable recycling of wastes from agro-food industries have received rising attention. Concerning this recycling process, one of the most promising opportunities is given by the recovery of biologically active extracts or compounds as a source of high-added value products potentially useful as beneficial functional food and feed constituents, food flavors and antioxidants, cosmetics, drugs or drug adjuvants. Wine by-products represent sources of antioxidants that have been relatively unexploited to date in Romania, but they are subjects of increased industrial interest. No evidence is available on the potential antioxidant properties of grape pomace (GP) when added in pig diets in Romania so this would be the first study involving in vivo experiments correlated with in vitro cell culture. Studies investigating the use of this residue may lead to significant economic gains and to prevent or decrease environmental problems caused by GP accumulation. The GP will be analyzed and tested through an extended and complex approach involving new in vitro and in vivo concepts along with the classical antioxidant activity in view of elaborating new and cheap sources of feed. The results of the applied science as aimed by this project will open new dimensions of the biochemistry of antioxidant polyphenols through the involvement of o-quinones.
The objective of the project:
The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of grape pomace rich in polyphenols on piglets performance, antioxidant activity of dietary GP on health and immune parameters.
- Polyphenols composition of the grape pomace and its antioxidant activity
- In vitro evaluation of the effect of GP (an aqueous extract) at cellular level on cultures of epithelial cells treated or not with different concentration of GP
- In vivo evaluation (experiments on pigs) of the efficiency of the diet enriched with grape pomace through the biochemical and immunological parameters as well as the UV-Vis spectroctroscopy analysis of the plasma and internal organs.
The members of the projects research team are:
Veronica Sanda CHEDEA - project director
Ionelia TARANU- senior scientist
Daniela MARIN- senior scientist
Cristina TABUC- senior scientist
Gina PISTOL- senior scientist
Rodica PELMUS-postdoctoral researcher
Cristina LAZAR- postdoctoral researcher
Mihai GRAS- postdoctoral researcher
Monica MOTIU- research asistent
Loredana CALIN- tehnician
Based on the research done within the frame of this project, the following ISI paper was published
- Chedea V. S., Braicu C., Chirila F., Ogola H.J.O., Pelmus R.S., Calin L.G., Socaciu C. 2014, Antioxidant/Prooxidant and antibacterial/probacterial effects of a grape seed extract in complex with lipoxygenase, BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 313684, 9 pages, doi:10.1155/2014/313684.
- Based on the research done within the frame of this project, the following papers indexed in international data bases (BDI) were published
- Chedea V. S., Palade L. M., Rotar M. C., Calin L. G., Dragomir C. 2015, The anthocyanin composition of a red grape pomace in relation with the wine industry by-products valorization in animal feed, Lucrari Stiintifice Seria Horticultura, Vol. 58(1) / 2015, U.S.A.M.V. Iasi
Chedea V. S., Pelmus R. S., Cismileanu A. E., Pistol G. C., Palade L. M., Taranu I. 2016, Total polyphenols content, antioxidant activity and stability of a grape pomace incorporated in animal feed, Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 2016, 49 (1)
- Based on the research done within the frame of this project, the following book chapters were published
- Antioxidant/Pro-Oxidant Action of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds in Grape Seeds: Nutrient Content, Antioxidant Properties and Health Benefits, Lorenzo J.M. and Daniel Franco D. eds, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Hauppauge, NY 11788-3619 USA, 2016
Editors: Jose Manuel Lorenzo Rodriguez, and Daniel Franco Ruiz (Meat Technology Centre of Galicia, Spain)
This book reviews the role of bioactive compounds in grape seed and their beneficial effects. Among the 11 chapters, the authors also discuss the composition, biological activity, and potential applications of grape seeds in the food industry and the health effects of grape seed extracts. As in other matrices, the presence of bioactive molecules in grape seed is related to several factors like grape varieties, climatic and soil conditions, vinification processes, winemaking procedures, extraction techniques and finally evaluation protocols.
Chapter 1 addresses the extraction methodologies to obtain biomolecules of interest from grape seed, from the conventional to the most innovative.
Chapter 2 discusses the most important and used methods to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of grape seed.
Chapter 3 is focused on how flavonoids could modulate the body homeostasis acting directly on the gastrointestinal tract, explaining their effects on obesity-related pathologies.
Chapter 4, using liquid chromatographic and mass detection techniques, centers on flavanols, one of the most important types of polyphenols occurring in grape seed. Chapter 5 complements Chapter 2 in evaluating total antioxidant capacity considering that antioxidant activity is usually due to different antioxidants present in grape seed.
Chapter 6 studies the effects of polyphenolic extracts in arterial hypertension and oxidative stress via glutathione-peroxidase.
Chapter 7 revises the antioxidant properties of grape seed in the conservation of different meat products and dose effect to increasing the shelf life of these products.
Chapter 8 shows the potential application of developing new products with healthier characteristics to garner greater consumer acceptance using grape seed in their formulations.
Chapter 9 provides a review of the composition and nutritional value of the majority compounds (fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile), showing the potential application of the use of grape seed as a food supplement to improve the human diet.
Chapter 10 indicates the potent antimicrobial activity of grape seed extract against many different microorganisms due to the presence of flavan-3-ols, inhibiting their growth, and potential applications in the food or pharmaceutical industries or even in the medical field.
Chapter 11 is focused on the potential use of bioactive compounds in grape seed extract as a remedy against lipid oxidation of meat products. (Imprint: Nova)
Table of Contents:
Extraction of Antioxidants from Grape Seeds (Moure, A., Falque, E. and Dominguez, H., Departamento de Enxenaria Quimica, Universidade de Vigo, Spain, and others)
Antioxidant/Pro-Oxidant Action of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds (L. M. Palade and V. S. Chedea, National Institute for Research and Development in Animal Biology and Nutrition Balotesti, Ilfov, Romania)
Flavonoids Interaction with Gastrointestinal Tract: Modulation of Enteroendocrine System, Intestinal Permeability and Metabolic Endotoxemia
(X. Terra, M. T. Blay, M. Pinent and A. Ardevol, MoBioFood Research Group. Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain)
LC-ESI-FTICR-MS Analysis of Flavan-3-Ols in Seeds of Grape Pomace
(I. Rockenbach, B. Santiago-Schubel, B. Thiele and R. Fett, Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Paraiba, Paraiba, Brazil, and others)
Methods to Evaluate Antioxidant Properties of Grape Seeds
(M. L. Gonzalez-SanJose, M.D. Rivero-Perez and P. Muniz-Rodriguez, Department of Biotechnology and Food Science, University of Burgos, Burgos, Spain)
Modulation Effects of Polyphenolic Extracts in Experimental Arterial Hypertension (Ciocoiu, M., Badescu, M. and Badescu, L., Department of Pathophysiology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iasi, Romania)
The Use of Grape Seed Extract on Meat Products: A Review
(Daniel Franco, Javier Carballo and Jose M. Lorenzo, Centro Tecnologico de la Carne de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vinas, Ourense, Spain, and others)
The Science of Grape Seeds Applied to Health Food Development
(C. J. Contreras-Castillo, J. P. Cruz-Tirado and L. Din Shirahigue, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Departamento de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and others)
Grape Seeds (Vitis Vinifera) and Their Nutritional Value
(M. Rubilar, C. Burgos-Diaz and J. M. Lorenzo, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile, and others)
Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities of Grape Seed Extracts
(G. Pasqua, and G. Simonetti, Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome, Italy, and others)
Grape Extracts: Antioxidant Properties in Meat Product
(G. Nieto and G. Ros, Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, Veterinary Faculty University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain)
About the Editors
Procyanidins-Bioavailability and Metabolization in Procyanidins: Characterisation, Antioxidant Properties and Health Benefits, Veronica S. Chedea ed., Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Hauppauge, NY 11788-3619 USA, 2016
Editors: Veronica Sanda Chedea (Laboratory of Animal Biology, National Research Development Institute for Animal Biology Nutrition (IBNA), Balotesti, Romania)
Procyanidins are phenolic compounds from plants and they are abundant in our diet. Research studies on procyanidins have shown that they have many health benefits, especially as preventive agents for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. High concentrations of procyanidins can be found in plants and foods such as red wine, grapes, grape seeds, cocoa, berries and apples. The first chapter of this book reviews the occurrence and the structure of these compounds.
Since the extraction method is considered a critical step in procyanidin analysis, the second chapter describes the various methods used in literature so far with reference to the most important factors influencing the extraction. Furthermore, common separation and detection methods like high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry are presented in order to give the complex image of the existing methods described so far. These principles of procyanidin fingerprinting are reflected further in studying the seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME), discarded as waste materials after the preparation of edible seeds. The highly polymeric proanthocyanidins from the Japanese horse chestnut were tested for their health benefits, and this is presented in Chapter Three.
As the interest in antioxidant compounds increases, the interest in studying their bioavailability has increased as well. In the context of controversy surrounding the studies on procyandins' absorption and metabolization, the next chapter tries to present different points of view related to this matter. Several applications of procyanidins in food systems are reviewed in Chapter Five, including: Co-encapsulation of green tea catechins on probiotic bacteria viability during simulated gastrointestinal digestion, stability of polyphenolic compounds on alginate, and chitosan microcapsules and procyanidin effectiveness after incorporation into food edible films. The final part of this book investigates the procyanidin structure-activity relationship and mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases because the intake of procyanidins has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk by epidemiologic studies.
The expertise of the authors contributing to this book is useful for graduates studying food science and technology, nutrition, pharmacy and health, and for researchers, scientists, policymakers and professionals from food, pharmacy, nutrition and biotechnology industries working on procyanidins' characterization, antioxidant properties and health benefits. (Imprint: Nova)
Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Procyanidins: Structure and Occurrence
(Andrea Bunea, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania)
Chapter 2. Analysis of Proanthocyanidins: Extraction, Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Methods
(Raluca Maria Pop, Anca Dana Buzoianu and Veronica Sanda Chedea, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu", Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and others)
Chapter 3. Analysis of Highly Polymeric Proanthocyanidins from Seed Shells of Japanese Horse Chestnut and their Health Benefits
(Kazushige Yokota, Hideto Kimura, Satoshi Ogawa, and Mitsuo Jisaka, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan, and others)
Chapter 4. Procyanidins-Bioavailability and Metabolization
(Veronica Sanda Chedea and Raluca Maria Pop, National Institute for Research and Development in Animal Biology and Nutrition Balotesti, Ilfov, Romania, and others)
Chapter 5. Procyanidins and their Effectiveness after Incorporation in Food Systems
(Oana Lelia Pop and Dan Cristian Vodnar, Food Science Department, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania)
Chapter 6. Studies of Procyanidin Structure-Activity Relationship and Mechanisms on Cardiovascular Diseases
(Jose M. Lorenzo, Paulo Eduardo S. Munekata and Ruben Dominguez, Meat technological Center of Galicia, San Cibrao das Vinas, Ourense, Spain, and others)
- Based on the research done within the frame of this project, the following book was edited
- Procyanidins: Characterisation, Antioxidant Properties and Health Benefits Editors: Veronica Sanda Chedea (Laboratory of Animal Biology, National Research Development Institute for Animal Biology Nutrition (IBNA), Balotesti, Romania) Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Hauppauge, NY 11788-3619 USA, 2016
- Results of the project were presented at the following scientific meetings
- The influence of dietary grape pomace on plasma biochemical parameters in weaned pigs, 8th World Congress on Polyphenols Applications and Workshop on ISANH Polyphenols Biowaste Valorization, Lisbon Portugal, 04-06. 06. 2014
- Assessment of grape pomace enriched feed for weaned piglets, Simpozionul International de Biologie si Nutritie Animala Balotesti, Ilfov, 14.11.2014
Use of wine byproduct in pig nutrition, IBNA-HUST Joint Workshop, 19.11.2014
- Wine industry residue valorization in animal diet- continual professional development through antioxidant activity research, https://www.food-sta.eu/node/50, University-Industry educational and training initiatives-virtual conference, Abstracts, https://www.food-sta.eu/node/50
- Total polyphenols and plasma biochemical parameters in weaned pigs fed dried grape pomace, 9th ISANH Congress on Polyphenols Applications, St Julian, Malta, 3-5. 06. 2015
- The inclusion of grape pomace in weaning pig diet influences the humoral immune response, 25 Years of Promoting Molecular Life Sciences in Romania, Academia Romana Bucuresti, Romania, 17-18. 09.2015
- The anthocyanin composition of a red grape pomace in relation with the wine industry by-products valorization in animal feed, Soil and Food, Resources for a Healthy Life, Iasi Romania 22-24. 10. 2015
- Polyphenols absorbtion in piglets fed with grape pomace diet, International Conference Animal Feeding in SouthEast Asia: Challenges and Prospects (AFSEA 2015) HaNoi 5-6/11/2015
- Total polyphenols content, antioxidant activity and stability of a grape pomace incorporated in animal feed, International Scientific Symposium BIOENGINEERING OF ANIMAL RESOURCES 2016, 26-27. 05. 2016.
- Polyphenols bioavailability in piglets fed with grape pomace diet, 10th World Congress on Polyphenols Applications, Porto, Portugal, 29.06-1.07. 2016
- Metabolic changes in piglets fed with grape pomace diet, Creating new collaborative research proposals in the framework of the COST project CM 1406 EPICHEM, 15-16.09.2016